For an in-depth description of cameras click here.
For a very simplified version, read the following:
Each company carries different models and types of cameras for you to use. Between the brands, there will be similarities just as you would expect from car companies. What we will start with right now are the primary camera parts.
Depending on your style of camera, the body will range in size and weight. So for this main article we will deal with a DLSR camera. With just the body, you would have a Lens Mount Cap concealing the Mirror.
This Mirror inside the camera allows the light to enter through a lens where it gets reflected on the viewfinder. When you take a picture, this mirror will flip immediately out of the way just before the photo is taken.
The Lens mount has a type of locking system. You attach the lens by lining up the dots, one from the lens the other on the lens mount of the camera body. By slowly rotating it along the surface of the mount, it will lock into place.
Lens Release Button
You can separate the lens of the camera; by using a release button beside the lens on the camera body.
There is a shutter release button that is used to capture the image. It is the shutter speed that determines the length of exposure for each picture.
Viewfinder / LCD screen
Either by using the viewfinder or on a lot of newer digital cameras these days you can view your shot with the larger LCD screen.
AF (auto focus) is the focal point during a shoot that you would adjust for when taking a picture. You can choose an AF automatically or manually.
Dependent on the type of lens you use, the selectable aperture range varies. Each selectable range determines the amount of light passes through the lens. Open the aperture widely for more light and visa verse.
The ISO Speed
Again the higher the ISO speed, the easier to take pictures in poorly lit shots.
Built in Flash
When the other settings on the camera can no longer allow enough light into the sensor, the built-in flash can be used to compensate.
Different cameras will use one or more variations of memory cards CF and SD. These cards vary in memory size and speed. They are used to store all the digital imprints from the pictures you have taken during your photo shoots.
These will vary considerably from brand and model of camera you choose to use. They will range from Menu, Playback, Erase, Focus Point Select, Set/ Multi-controller Buttons to Live View/ Movie Shooting Switch, etc.
These cameras will also have rechargeable batteries as well as the possibility of mountable battery packs on the bottom of the camera.